Apple Body Shape Can Raise Women's Heart Attack Risk

From - February 28, 2018

Apple Body Shape Can Raise Women's Heart Attack Risk

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 28, 2018 -- Excess belly weight -- a so-called apple shape -- raises a woman's risk for heart attack even more than overall obesity, researchers report.

While obesity raises heart attack risk in both sexes, women with bigger waists and waist-to-hip ratios have greater odds for a heart attack than men who have a similar apple-shaped body, a large British study finds.

"Our findings show that looking at how fat tissue is distributed in the body -- especially in women -- can give us more insight into the risk of heart attack than general measures of obesity, such as body mass index," said lead researcher Sanne Peters. Body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used measurement based on height and weight.

Having a pear-shaped body -- a smaller waist with excess weight mostly around the hips -- is not thought to raise heart attack risk to the same degree.

Currently, no medical treatment focuses on excess belly fat, said Peters, a research fellow in epidemiology at the University of Oxford's George Institute for Global Health.

However, "more intensive screening for the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes among those with an apple shape might help to prevent heart disease, especially in women," Peters said.

According to the World Health Organization, 40 percent of women worldwide are overweight and 15 percent are obese.

Obesity increases the risk for heart attack, the leading cause of death worldwide, the researchers noted. Obesity also raises your odds for stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and some cancers.

For the new study, Peters and colleagues collected data on nearly 500,000 adults in the United Kingdom, aged 40 to 69, and followed them for seven years.

The investigators found that waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference, respectively, were 15 percent and 7 percent more strongly tied to heart attack risk in women than men.

Also, compared with BMI, waist-to-hip ratio was an 18 percent stronger predictor of heart attack in women and a 6 percent stronger predictor of heart attack in men, the findings showed.

However, the biological factors that contribute to the increased risk for heart attack are not known, Peters said.

Further research is needed to try to determine the different ways women and men store body fat, and to understand how exactly this is linked to different health risks, she said.

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